Category Archives: Microsoft

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If you need to create an vhd file from an ISO please read the article link above.

Convert-WindowsImage is the new version of WIM2VHD designed specifically for Windows 10. It also works fine with Windows 8 and Windows 8.1. Completely rewritten in PowerShell, the Convert-WindowsImage command-line tool allows you to create generalized (“sysprepped”) VHD and VHDX images from any official build (ISO or WIM image) of Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2.
New in version 10 is support for Windows 10 (and Windows Server 2016) VMs and images. Full change log is below.
Images created by Convert-WindowsImage will boot directly to the Out Of Box Experience (OOBE), ready for your first-use customizations. So you can think of it as of replacement for your daddy’s “Deploy-Sysprep-and-Capture” approach. You can also use these images for automation by supplying your own unattend.xml file, making the possibilities limitless. Fresh squeezed, organically grown, free-range VHDs—just like Mom used to make—that work with Virtual PC (Windows 7 only), Virtual Server (Windows 7 only), Microsoft Hyper-V, or Windows’ Native VHD-Boot functionality!
Convert-WindowsImage (just like its precessor, WIM2VHD tool) was originally created by Mike Kolitz ( kolitz) while he was a Microsoft Employee and worked on Windows. The tool is now maintained and evolved by his friends from Microsoft Consulting Services (MCS).


Windows 7 applications loosing their icon’s.

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Windows 7 applications loosing their icon’s.

I lost my icon from outlook 2007 below the fix for the problem, the simple way to rebuild the windows icon cache. The icon cache can be cleared and rebuild by deleting the file : IconCache.db this is a hidden file.

Here the way how to solve the issue.
  • Start Task Manager.
  • In the Process tab, right-click on the Explorer.exe process and click End Process.
  • Click the End process.
  • Click file of Task Manager and select New Task (Run…)
  • Type CMD.EXE and click OK
  • In the Command Prompt window, type the following:

CD /d %userprofile%AppDataLocal
DEL IconCache.db /a

  • In Task Manager, click File, select New Task (Run…)
  • Type EXPLORER.EXE, and click OK.

Now the icon cache is cleared and the problem should be resolved.

Checkdisk is running at every startup

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1. click on your start menu and open the run dialog.
2. type “cmd” and press enter
3. Next type “fsutil dirty query c:”
4. If the return message indicates that the volume is dirty go to step 5
5. Next type “chkdsk c: /f /x”
6. After that finshes repeat step 3.
7. If it is no longer dirty then reboot and you should notice no more

Exchange 2003 memory optimalization

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Maximizing virtual address space

It is best to monitor the virtual address space for the Information Store on large mailbox servers to make sure that performance and stability does not decrease. The easiest way to do this is to monitor the VM Largest Block Size counter of the MSExchangeIS performance object in the Performance utility. This value is shown in bytes. After you start the computer, it is typical to see a sharp decrease in the largest virtual memory block size. However, after a day or two of operation, the value approaches a typical operating level. A value for the largest free virtual memory block that is more than 200,000,000 bytes (about 200 MB) indicates a healthy server. If you notice a lower value than this, monitor the server more closely. If you experience a low virtual address space:

  1. If you have 1 GB or more of physical memory installed, make sure that the /3GB switch is set in the Boot.ini file if the following conditions are true on the server:
    • The server is home to mailboxes or public folders.
    • The operating system is Windows 2000 Advanced Server or Windows Server 2003.

    If the server does not have any mailboxes or public folders on it, such as a mail gateway, we do not recommend that you use the /3GB switch.

  2. If Exchange Server 2003 is installed on a Windows Server 2003-based server, and if it has the /3GB switch set, make sure that the /USERVA=3030 switch is set in the Boot.ini file. If Exchange Server 2003 is installed on a Windows 2000-based server, make sure that the server is running Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 (SP3) or later.
  3. If you have 1 GB or more physical memory installed, configure the HeapDeCommitFreeBlockThreshold registry value in the following registry key, and then restart the server:
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSession Manager
    Value name: HeapDeCommitFreeBlockThreshold
    Value type: REG_DWORD
    Value data: 0x00040000 (recommended)
    Value default: not present

To add the /3GB and /USERVA switches to your Boot.ini file, simply open Boot.ini in a text editor such as Notepad, add the /3GB and the /USERVA=3030 parameters to the startup line, and save your changes. The changes will not take effect until you reboot the system.

The boot.ini will look like this :

[boot loader]
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)WINDOWS=”Windows Server 2003, Enterprise” /noexecute=optout /fastdetect /3GB /USERVA=3030

The memory optimilization error in the event viewer will only disapear when the registry key is edited with : 00040000

Remove disconnected Mailboxes on Exchange 2007

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In Exchange 2007 you can’t remove disconnected mailboxes from the GUI you can do this from the powershell.

Show the disconnected mailboxes on the server.

Get-MailboxStatistics | where-object { $_.DisconnectDate -ne $null } | Select DisplayName,MailboxGuid

Remove one disconnected mailbox.

Remove-Mailbox -Database -StoreMailboxIdentity -confirm:$false

To remove all mailboxes at ones we have to set a variable then give the command to cleanup disconnected mailboxes.

$users = Get-MailboxStatistics | where-object { $_.DisconnectDate -ne $null } | Select DisplayName,MailboxGuid

$users | ForEach { Remove-Mailbox -Database “Mailbox Database” -StoreMailboxIdentity $_.MailboxGuid -confirm:$false }

To remove all disconnected mailboxes on a server in every datastore use the following command.

$users = Get-MailboxStatistics | where-object { $_.DisconnectDate -ne $null } | Select DisplayName,MailboxGuid,Database$users | ForEach { Remove-Mailbox -Database $_.Database -StoreMailboxIdentity $_.MailboxGuid -confirm:$false }



Exchange 2003 to Exchange 2007

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Exchange Migratie van Exchnange 2003 naar Exchange 2007 in een ander Forest domein.

Indien je de volgende situatie is het een uitdaging dit te doen, in de Exchange 207 omgeving zijn de accounts los gekoppeld van de mailbox. Een andere bijkomstige factor is dat exmerge in Exchange 2007 niet meer ondersteund is (wel werkend te krijgen). Maar niet ondersteund betekend dit doen we ook niet meer. Des te leuker om even te kijken hoe gaat dit nu met powershell.



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Het volgende probleem :Exchange mail Store kan niet meer gestart worden.

 Exchange 2003

  • controleer de exchange mail store file : Eseutil.exe /mh  "[drive]:ExchsrvrMDBData[storage group][mail store]MAILSTOREFILE.edb" (Pas pad aan naar eigenomgeving)
  • Indien er dan in beeld komt dat er een State: "Dirty Shutdown" is geweest, dan is er de mogelijkheid de database te repareren.
  • Voer een reparatie uit op het database bestand : Eseutil.exe /p "D:ExchsrvrMDBData[storage group][mail store]MAILSTOREFILE.edb" (DIt kan enige tijd duren)
  • De mail store kan nu weer gestart worden.



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FSMO Rollen

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Different FSMO roles.

query  : netdom query FSMO (from a machine in the domain)

Schema Master – One master role holder per forest. The schema master FSMO role holder is the domain controller responsible for performing updates to the directory schema.       

Domain Naming Master – One master role holder per forest. The domain naming master FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for making changes to the forest-wide domain name space of the directory.       

Infrastructure Master – One master role holder per domain. The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for updating an object’s SID and distinguished name in a cross-domain object reference.

RID Master – One master role holder per domain. The RID master FSMO role holder is the single DC responsible for processing RID Pool requests from all DCs within a given domain.

DC Emulator – One master role holder per domain. The PDC emulator FSMO role holder is a Windows 2000 DC that advertises itself as the primary domain controller (PDC) to earlier version workstations, member servers, and domain controllers. It is also the Domain Master Browser and handles password discrepancies.

You can find netdom in the Windows XP Service Pack 2 Support Tools